Australopithecus afarensis. Model of a male Australopithecus afarensis hominid. This hominid lived between 3.9 and 2.9 million years ago. Fossil specimens have only be found in eastern Africa. It is thought that A. afarensis may have given rise to several lineages of early human. Compared to the modern human skull A. afarensis had a forward protruding (prognathic) face and held and a smaller brain.