French artist Marcel Duchamp (1887 – 1968) created complex, mystifying works that were a gateway to conceptual art. Initially dabbling in Impressionism, Duchamp adopted a groundbreaking form of facet Cubist-Futurism inspired by time-lapse photography. His famous “Nude Descending a Staircase,” which reflects this style, scandalized exhibitions in Paris and New York, rocketing Duchamp to overnight success. He also created ready-mades—ordinary objects he transformed into art by signing and titling them. A cult figure among avant-garde artists, Duchamp strongly influenced Surrealism, Dada and Pop Art.