Jean Dubuffet (1901 – 1985) was a controversial French artist who produced a universally understood creative language that violated all artistic norms. Originally a wine merchant, Dubuffet founded Art Brut (Raw Art), a stark, primitive style inspired by the pure, uncontaminated artwork of children and the insane. He fiercely rejected concepts of beauty and ugliness by depicting dehumanized subjects lost in the chaos of tight spaces. Dubuffet enhanced many of his works with an impasto of asphalt, pebbles and glass. Although Dubuffet's artwork often provoked loathing, it strongly influenced the dawn of Pop Art and neo-Dadaism.